Awang Damit Ahmad was born in Kuala Penyu, Sabah in 1956. He studied fine art at UITM (School of Art and Design of ITM) and was chosen as the best student in 1983. He furthered his studies in painting at the Catholic University of America in Washington DC in 1988 and was awarded a Master's Degree in Fine Art in 1990.

Awang now lectures in fine art at UITM. He has held positions as the Curator of the Art Gallery and Head of the Fine Arts Department before being appointed an Associate Professor in 2000.

Mixed On Canvas (2008) - 120cm x 120cm

Mixed On Canvas (2008) - 100.5cm x 100.5cm

Mixed On Canvas (2008) - 61cm x 61cm




Birth name Henri-Robert-Marcel Duchamp
Born 28 July 1887(1887-07-28)
Blainville-Crevon, France
Died 2 October 1968 (aged 81)
Neuilly-sur-Seine, France
Nationality French, became a U.S. citizen in 1955
Field Painting, Sculpture, Film
Movement Dada, Surrealism
Works Nude Descending a Staircase, No. 2 (1912)
Fountain (1917)
The Bride Stripped Bare By Her Bachelors, Even (1915-23)
Etant donnés (1946-66)

Marcel Duchamp. Nude Descending a Staircase, No. 2 (1912). Oil on canvas. 57 7/8" x 35 1/8". Philadelphia Museum of Art.

Bicycle Wheel by Marcel Duchamp (1913)

Fountain by Marcel Duchamp, 1917, photograph by Alfred Stieglitz.

DADA: This word was seized upon by the Dadaists at the Cabaret Cafe in 1916 when a paper knife was found inserted into a dictionary pointing to the term "dada." This infant language for "hobbyhorse" was found appropriate for the group's anti-aesthetic creations and protest activities.

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Styles of Art

Artists used many styles in their paintings and drawings. Here are some of the more common styles of art. Learn about each style and how to identify it. Next time you look at a painting, try to figure out what style it is! To see some artwork done in the different styles.

Abstract artists felt that paintings did not have to show only things that were recognizable. In their paintings they did not try to show people, animals, or places exactly as they appeared in the real world. They mainly used color and shape in their paintings to show emotions. Some Abstract art is also called Non-objective art. In non-objective art, you do not see specific objects. It is not painted to look like something specific.

Pablo Picasso 1881 - 1973 Painter

Les Demoiselles d'Avignon (1907), Museum of Modern Art, New York

Cubism is modern art made up mostly of paintings. The paintings are not supposed to look real The artist uses geometric shapes to show what he is trying to paint. Early cubists used mainly grays, browns, greens, and yellows. After 1914, Cubists started to use brighter colors. Cubism was the beginning of the Abstract and Non-objective art styles.

16 December 1866-13 December 1944

Wassily Kandinsky (1866-1944)
Transverse Line, 1923
141 x 202 cm
Oil on canvas
Kunstsammlung Nordrhein-Westfalen, Dusseldorf

In Expressionist Art, the artist tries to express certain feelings about some thing. The artists that painted in this style were more concerned with having their paintings express a feeling than in making the painting look exactly like what they were painting.


Pop art

Andy Warhol, Campbell's Soup Cans , 1962, synthetic polymer paint on thirty-two canvases, Each canvas, 20 x 16 inches (50.8 x 40.6 cm), Museum of Modern Art, NY.
Andy Warhol, Mao, 1973, silkscreened acrylic on canvas, 448.3 x 346.1 cm, Nationalgalerie, Berlin.

Pop art is a visual art movement that emerged in the mid 1950s in Britain and in parallel in the late 1950s in the United States. The coinage of the term Pop Art is often credited to British art critic/curator, Lawrence Alloway in an essay titled The Arts and the Mass Media, although the term he uses is "popular mass culture" Nevertheless, Alloway was one of the leading critics to defend mass culture and Pop Art as a legitimate art form. Pop art is one of the major art movements of the twentieth century. Characterized by themes and techniques drawn from popular mass culture, such as advertising and comic books, pop art is widely interpreted as either a reaction to the then-dominant ideas of abstract expressionism or an expansion upon them. Pop art, like pop music, aimed to employ images of popular as opposed to elitist culture in art, emphasizing the banal or kitschy elements of any given culture. It has also been defined by the artists' use of mechanical means of reproduction or rendering techniques that downplay the expressive hand of the artist. Pop art at times targeted a broad audience and often claimed to do so.

Much of pop art is considered very academic, as the unconventional organizational practices that are often used make it difficult for some to comprehend. Pop art and minimalism are considered to be the last modern art movements and thus the precursors to postmodern art, or some of the earliest examples of postmodern art themselves.


What Is Visual Art?

The visual arts are those creations we can look at, such as a drawing or a painting. Here is a partial list:

# drawing
# painting
# sculpture
# architecture
# photography
# film
# printmaking

And the decorative arts of

# ceramics
# furniture and interior design
# jewelry making
# metal crafting
# wood working

Any one of these disciplines is a type of visual art.
This is the simple explanation. You can stop reading right here, confident that you know what the visual arts are. Or you can keep reading and get a bit of background on that often-abused phrase "The Arts".

"The Arts", as a term, has an interesting history. During the Middle Ages, The Arts were very scholarly, limited to seven in number and did not involve creating anything at which people looked. They were:

* grammar
* rhetoric
* dialectic logic
* arithmetic
* geometry
* astronomy
* music

To further confuse matters, these seven Arts were known as the Fine Arts, in order to distinguish them from the "Useful Arts". Why? Only "fine" people - those who didn't do manual labor - studied them. (Presumably, the Useful Arts people were too busy being useful to have need of an education.)

At some point in the ensuing centuries, people realized there was a difference between a science and an art. The phrase Fine Arts came to mean anything that had been created to please the senses. After losing the sciences, the list now included music, dance, opera and literature, as well as what we normally think of as "art": painting, sculpture, architecture and the decorative arts.

That list of Fine Arts got a little long, didn't it? Apparently others thought so, too, because during the 20th-century we started to split the Fine Arts up into Visual Arts (painting, sculpture, etc.), Auditory Arts (music, drama, spoken literature) and Performance Arts (which can be either visual, auditory or a combination of the two - but are performed).

Within the world of the visual arts, people still make distinctions between "Fine" art and everything else - and it gets really confusing, at times.For instance, we'll talk about painting and sculpture, and automatically classify these as Fine Arts. The decorative arts, which are, sometimes, of a finer nature and craftsmanship than Fine arts, are not called "Fine".

Additionally, visual artists sometimes refer to themselves (or are referred to, by others) as fine artists, as opposed to commercial artists. But! Some commercial art is really wonderful - "Fine".And, since an artist needs to sell art in order to remain a working artist (unless his or her grandfather invented, say, Velcro, and he or she exists off a trust fund or two), a strong argument could be made that most art is commercial.

It would really simplify matters if we could all just stick with visual, auditory, performance or literary - when we speak of The Arts - and eliminate "Fine" altogether. Substitute instead the words "good" and "bad", with the huge understanding that 6.3 billion people are going to have 6.3 billion different opinions on that which constitutes each. Life, however, will never be that simple - much less Art.



Drawing, delineation of form upon a surface, usually a plane, by means of lines and tints or shading. The forms delineated in a drawing may be visible objects, imagined forms presented as if actually seen, or purely arbitrary or abstract forms.

Because the delineation of form lies at the foundation of all the visual arts (including sculpture), drawing is one of the most important branches of study in schools of art and architecture, as well as in engineering schools. This article, however, is concerned with freehand drawing as opposed to drafting and mechanical drawing. The drawing of visible objects is essentially the graphic recording of impressions received through the eye. Because it is not possible, however, to present all the visible facts and aspects of an object in black and white on a plane surface, the art of drawing lies in suggestion, stimulating the imagination of the beholder to supply whatever is lacking in the representation. The choice of what to record and what to omit calls for a highly developed taste and can be mastered only by long experience. A sketch is a drawing that attempts to present in a summary way only partial and momentary aspects of the object represented. In an effective sketch, the immediacy of the artist's visual impression is not sacrificed by an effort to achieve elaborate finish.

The different kinds and schools of drawing are distinguished by the ways in which the restrictions imposed by the medium of black and white on a plane surface are evaded or overcome. In outline drawings, and in some sketches, only the outlines and contours or salient edges and markings of an object or scene are shown. The power of pure line, even without color, to suggest the most varied modeling of surfaces and to express the minutest detail is admirably exemplified in Chinese and Japanese art (search Chinese Art and Architecture; Japanese Art and Architecture). The Western schools, on the other hand, lay great stress upon values—the rendering of the varied gradations of light and dark. European artists have striven to achieve the desired effects by means of corresponding gradations in the black-and-white tones of the drawing.

Even different colors can be suggested by, or interpreted from, black and white by a careful rendering of their apparent values; a dark red, for example, is indicated by darker shading than a light blue or a yellow. The great artists of the Renaissance stand midway between the Japanese exponents of pure line and the modern Western interpreters of values. The drawings of Raphael, Leonardo da Vinci, and Michelangelo are remarkable for the purity, vigor, and delicacy of line, as well as for the skillful modeling of the form as expressed by shading.

The fundamental principles of the art are the same, whatever the medium employed. In drawing from any object or model, the first step is to observe and sketch in the dominant structural lines, contours, and masses. The more important details are added and corrected, and the minor details are left to the last. In executing these various stages of the drawing, lightness of touch and sureness of line are important.

The actual techniques of drawing, however, vary greatly depending upon the medium employed. Over the centuries, drawings have been executed on many kinds of surfaces—cave walls, clay objects, plaster, papyrus, parchment, silk, wood panels, stone blocks and metal plates (search Prints and Printmaking), and, most commonly, paper of various consistencies and tones. The chief drawing tools are pencil, pen or brush and ink, black or red crayon, and charcoal. Of these, the pen is the most exacting, as it makes a definite mark, hard to alter once the ink has dried. Tints must be expressed by dots, closely crowded lines, and cross-hatching. The masters of pen drawing must be masters of pure line. With charcoal, the artist must "paint" on paper, fine charcoal lines being nearly impossible to draw; this difficulty is also true of the brush. Pencil and crayon require the use of the line but also permit broad, soft strokes and stumped, or rubbed-in, shading.

Very effective drawings are made by using a tinted paper, often either gray or pale blue, on which the highlights are indicated by use of chalk or the pigment called Chinese white; the darker shades and masses are indicated with the pencil, and the tone of the paper is left to represent the intermediate values. The great masters of the Renaissance, who lacked the familiar graphite (lead) pencil, which is a 16th-century development, sometimes used a lead- or silver-pointed tool on parchment or heavy paper, giving a pale gray line; more often, they used red chalk. In lieu of the modern steel pen they used quills.

Perspective drawing stands midway between freehand or pictorial drawing and instrumental or mechanical drawing. It aims to represent the actual three-dimensional aspect of an object from a given point of view and is a matter less of personal and artistic interpretation than of scientific determination. The object is shown with all the angular distortion and foreshortening that it exhibits to the eye at the given point of view; but the exact angles, dimensions, distortion, and foreshortening of each part are determined by mathematical processes and not by mere visual impressions. Search Perspective.

A perspective drawing, thus scientifically laid out in outline, may be finished as to line, color, light and shade, and accessories in a pictorial manner, as in freehand drawing; it then moves from the category of scientific drawing into that of fine art. Indeed, no artist can master the correct portrayal of form, especially of scenery and buildings, without training in perspective; it is accordingly an important branch of study in all formal schools of art, such as the famous École des Beaux-Arts in Paris. It is absolutely indispensable to scene painters and forms the basis of the illusory effects of stage settings. In Japanese drawings the treatment of perspective is very different; the point of view is, in almost all cases, assumed at a high elevation, giving an effect called bird's-eye perspective.

Drawing has existed since prehistoric times, either as an independent expression or ancillary to other art forms.

A Stone Age, Ancient, and Medieval Drawing
During the Old Stone Age in Africa, Asia, and Europe, realistic animal drawings with religious associations were incised in bone and painted on rock faces and cave interiors, as at Altamira, Spain and Lascaux, France.

In ancient Egypt, ink drawings on papyrus and pottery fragments carved with sketched figures and designs served as models for painting and sculpture, as did carved drawings on clay tablets in Mesopotamia. Marked at first by strict frontality and exaggeration of forms, such drawings in time gave way to naturalistic impulses—as in the art of the reigns of Akhenaton in Egypt and Ashurbanipal in Assyria.

A few Greek or Roman preparatory drawings—on wood panels, parchment, metal, stone, or ivory—remain. Finished drawings, as seen on Greek vases, indicate the development from stylized archaicism to classical idealization of nature, and eventually to naturalistic treatment of human form. Roman drawing, although continuing to show Greek influences, was generally realistic.

In the monasteries of medieval Europe, religious texts were inscribed on parchment, then embellished with initial letters, decorative borders, and miniature scenes. In Romanesque Europe, drawings served as models to be copied for such manuscript illumination and also as cartoons (search Cartoon), or studies, for frescoes, sculpture, and other arts. Subjects were usually treated as stylized symbols of religious truths. This viewpoint was countered in the Gothic period; the change was reflected in the silverpoint and pen drawings of the Flemish artists Jan van Eyck and Rogier van der Weyden, who sought veracity in their study of nature.

B RenaissanceBaroque, and 18th-century Drawings ,
During the Renaissance the humanist rediscovery of Greco-Roman classicism, the invention of printing, and the availability of paper and a wider range of tools encouraged artists to draw. Whether meant to serve as preparatory studies for paintings or sculptures or—for the first time in the West—intended as independent works of art in their own right, the master drawings of these artists reveal an understanding of natural forms and their idealization. Outstanding Italian drawings in chalk, silverpoint, and pen include the anatomical and scientific drawings of Leonardo da Vinci and the figure drawings of Michelangelo and Raphael. The drawings of Tintoretto and of the Mannerists Jacopo da Pontormo and El Greco are more personally expressive. Those of the Flemish artist Hieronymus Bosch are surrealistic. Perceptive realism characterizes the line drawings of the Flemish artist Pieter Bruegel the Elder, and the Germans Albrecht Dürer and Hans Holbein the Younger.

In the 17th century the calligraphic brush, pen, and wash drawings of Rembrandt and the chalk and crayon portrait figures of the Flemish artist Peter Paul Rubens tend to have a baroque drama and energy. In contrast is the calm architectural order of some pen-and-wash studies of the French artist Nicolas Poussin.

In 18th-century France, the brush-and-wash drawings of Jean-Antoine Watteau and Jean Honoré Fragonard were typical of the rococo style, while the neoclassical approach is typified in the strong chalk and charcoal figure studies of Pierre Paul Prud'hon. Further stylistic contrast is found in a comparison of the quiet, realistic drawings of everyday subjects by Jean Baptiste Siméon Chardin and the line-and-wash drawings satirizing war and injustice by the Spanish artist Francisco de Goya.

C 19th- and 20th-century Drawing
The increased tempo of political and economic change in the modern period is reflected in a variety of art styles primarily emanating from Paris. Resurgent neoclassicism, as seen in the taut, linear figure and portrait drawings of Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, vied with the romantic tonal drama in drawings of Eugène Delacroix and Théodore Géricault. Gustave Courbet used hatched tones to assert his aggressive realism. Honoré Daumier often drew satiric caricatures. Realism also pervades drawings by such Americans as Gilbert Stuart, George Catlin, John James Audubon, Winslow Homer, and Thomas Eakins, as well as those by the Canadian artists Paul Kane and Cornelius Krieghoff.

Anticipated by atmospheric tone drawings by the English landscapists John Constable and J. M. W. Turner, the French impressionist Claude Monet originated a drawing style characterized by loosely meshed line texture to define objects as blurred masses. Using parallel strokes, the Dutch artist Vincent van Gogh achieved a more open pattern than the flat masses of his colleague, the French painter Paul Gauguin. Paul Cézanne employed a broken line to establish structural planes. The charcoal drawings of Georges Seurat take full advantage of the paper's texture and achieve a misty ambiance.

In the 20th century, the analytical cubism of the still-life and portrait drawings of Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque eventually led to more abstract constructivist and minimalist drawing. French surrealism and American abstract expressionism inspired more spontaneous, open drawings. There were also explorations in texture, grids, and collage. At the same time, interest in traditional contour drawings continued. The realist point of view is exemplified in the drawings of George Bellows and Edward Hopper in the United States, and of the social realists Käthe Kollwitz in Germany and Diego Rivera, José Clemente Orozco, and David Alfaro Siqueiros in Mexico. Drawing in the late 20th century had enormous variety and was inventively combined with printing techniques.

D Non-Western Drawing
In China, Japan, and Korea, drawing, painting, and writing are fundamentally one. Each ideograph (search Alphabet) is both symbol and design abstracted from nature. Although early drawing, usually of religious figures, shows uniform lines, later landscape and other secular drawing often has calligraphic strokes that allow more modulation of form. Color is considered only a decorative accessory. Monochrome "ink-splash" painting was an intuitive technique developed by Zen Buddhist monks such as the 13th-century Chinese artist Mu-ch'i Fa-ch'ang.

Early Islamic artists (search Islamic Art and Architecture), influenced by Arabic calligraphy and prohibited from the use of representational forms, achieved consistent and intricate floral and geometric abstractions. Later drawing, especially in Persian book illumination, was influenced by Chinese styles and European realism and depicted figural scenes. These in turn inspired 16th- and 17th-century Turkish and Indian drawing.



Drawing is a form of visual expression and is one of the major forms within the visual arts. There are a number of subcategories of drawing, including cartooning. Certain drawing methods or approaches, such as "doodling" and other informal kinds of drawing such as drawing in the fog a shower leaves on a bathroom mirror, or the surrealist method of "entopic graphomania," in which dots are made at the sites of impurities in a blank sheet of paper, and lines are then made between the dots, may or may not be considered as part of "drawing" as a "fine art."
The word 'drawing' is used as both a verb and a noun:
• Drawing (verb) is the act of making marks on a surface so as to create an image, form or shape.
• The produced image is also called a drawing (noun). A quick, unrefined drawing may be defined as a sketch.
In simplistic terms, drawing is distinct from painting, perhaps more so in the Western view; East Asian art, which generally only uses brushes, has historically made less distinction between the two. Critics may praise a painter's ability to draw well, meaning that the shapes, especially of the human body, are well-articulated, or a drawing may be considered painterly.
Adding confusion, similar tools and media may be used in both tasks. Dry media normally associated with drawing, such as chalk, may be used in pastel painting. Drawing may be done with liquid media applied with brushes or pens. Similar supports likewise can serve both: painting generally involves the application of liquid paint onto prepared canvas or panels, but sometimes an underdrawing is drawn first on that same support. Drawing is generally concerned with the marking of lines and areas of tone onto paper, but watercolor painting uses a paper support. Traditional drawings were monochrome, or at least had little colour,[1] while modern coloured-pencil drawings may approach or cross the boundary (if there is one) between drawing and painting.
The term drawing suggests a process and intent that is distinct from the traditional act of painting. While there are drawings that are finished artworks, drawing is often exploratory, with considerable emphasis on observation, problem solving and composition, often as a means of preparation for a painting. In contrast, traditional painting is often a means of execution or finishing an artwork. It is fair to note that modern painters often incorporate methods of drawing in their painting process, particarly in the early stages of a painting.


Abdullah Ariff

Abdullah Ariff was born in Penang in 1904. He was a self-taught artist and was an art teacher at the Anglo-Chinese School,Penang (presently known as Methodist Boy's School). In the 1920s, there was no local art group and the only organised art group at that time consisted of expatriate Europeans (mostly English housewives ) who called themselves the " Penang Impressionists ". Asians were not allowed to join the exclusive group which was a reflection of the prevailing colonialistic imperialism then. However Abdullah Ariff was admitted into the group in the mid-30s because his services as an art instructor were needed. The " Penang Impressionists " disbanded before the beginning of the 2nd World War, never to be reformed.

Abdullah Ariff was acknowledged with Yong Mun Sen, as a pioneer of watercolour painting in Malaysia. He was especially well-known for his meticulous masterful handling of the medium. Compared to Mun Sen, his works are more 'European' in outlook and approach, and his paintings appear to have more crowded details. A dedicated teacher, he was well-respected amongst the artistic community in the northern states.

There was a break in his stay in Penang as he went to Kuala Lumpur in 1945 to work as a cartoonist for The Straits Echo. He returned to Penang in 1947 and became active in politics and was a committee member of UMNO. In 1955, he served as a city councillor and had the rare distinction of having a road in Penang named after him ( Jalan Abdullah Ariff ), an honour that no other artist in Malaysia has been accorded since. In 1955, he established the Ariff Advertising Agency.

In 1954, he held one-man shows at North Carolina, and the Mint Museum of Art at Charlotte, New York, U.S.A. In 1955, he participated in the "United Society of Artists" group exhibition at the galleries of the Royal Society of British Artists, London. There, he was elected to Fellowship of the Royal Society of Art (F.R.S.A.) England.

In 1956, he was invited to take part in "Le Salon" of the Society of French Artist at the galleries at Grand Palai des Champs-Elysees, France.

In 1957,one of his paintings was chosen as a personal gift to be presented to Tungku Abdul Rahman,Malaysia's first Prime Minister on the occasion of the Merdeka (Independence) celebrations.

Abdullah Ariff passed away in 1962, leaving behind a legacy of excellent watercolour paintings. According to one of his ex-student, Tan Lye Hoe, Abdullah Ariff's philosophy of art is "Art knows no barriers"

Sejarah Seni Visual Malaysia I

Terdapat kepercayaan bahawa pengembara- pengembara Eropah dan Inggeris telah meminta pelukis-pelukis negeri-negeri Selat yang berketurunan Cina atau Melayu untuk melukis gambaran kehidupan tempatan yang bermotifkan flora dan fauna. Ini disebabkan oleh minat mereka atau sebagai rekod sejarah. Lukisan-lukisan dan catan-catan tersebut banyak ditempah oleh pegawai-pegawai Syarikat Hindia Timur yang ditempatkan di Malaya.
Pihak Inggeris telah memperkenalkan genre lukisan/ catan lanskap dalam aliran Realisme, zaman Pre-Raphelites, Turner dan Constable. Ini telah berterusan sehingga abad ke 19 apabile Seni Eropah terutamanya Seni Perancis mula memberi kesannya kepada seluruh rantau dengan pergerakan-pergerakan seni seperti aliran Impresionisme, Kubisme, Surealisme, Futurisme dan Konstruktivisme.
Sumbangan golongan Cina kepada perkembangan seni Malaysia dan Singapura berpunca daripada pendatang dan pelawat Cina seperti Xu Beihong yang telah bermastautin di Pulau Pinang untuk beberapa tahun. Mereka juga telah berkunjung ke Singapura untuk sesuatu jangka masa. Mereka telah menerima pendidikan dalam lukisan berus Cina dan kaligrafi di China.
Pada mulanya halatuju penghijrah-penghijrah awal dari China adalah untuk mencari sara hidup. Seni halus tidak pernah difikirkan . Hanya selepas mereka bertapak kukuh dan berjaya dalam kehidupan, barulah terdapat beberapa penghijrahan berdasarkan kretiviti artistik mereka. Terdapat yang terlibat dalam pendidikan Seni dan ada pula yang menjadi pelukis amatur. Antara yang berjaya dalam bidang seni ialah Lee Kah Yeow, Wang Yau, Reverend Chuk Mor, Reverend Pak Yuen, Chai Horng, Chung Hong Kong dan Zhen Wei Sin. Kesimpulannya pada awal tahu 1920an terdapat pelukis yang mempamerkan hasil karyanya. Pameran seni lukis yang terawal di singapura ialah pameran Lian Xiao Oh pada tahun 1924. Disusuli pula dengan pameran pastel He Qui Qo pada tahun 1926.
Aktiviti-aktiviti seni yang awal di Pulau Pinang bermula apabila pengasasan Pulau Pinang pada tahun 1786 oleh Sir Francis Light di bawah Syarikat Hindia timur. Pelukis-pelukis Inggeris yang tinggal di Pulau Pinang gemar melukis pemandangan laut dan keindahan alam semulajadi pulau itu. Kemungkinan terdapat pelukis tempatan yang membekalkan lukisan-lukisan kepada para penaung Syarikat Peniagaan Eropah.
Perkembangan seni lukis moden boleh dikesan sehingga tanuh 1920an semasa kumpulan penang Impressionist ditubuhkan. Kumpulan ini terdiri daripada ekspatriat Eropah yang kebanyakannya merupakan surirumah bangsa Inggeris. Disebabkan sikap-sikap kolonialistik pada masa itu, pelukis-pelukis tempatan Pulau Pinang tidak dibenarkan menyertai Penang Impressionist. Dua orang pelukis tempatan yang diterima menganggotainya ialah Puan Lim Cheng Kung dan Abullah Ariff. Abdullah Arif diterima dalam kumpulan itu kerana perkhidmatan beliau sebagai pendidik seni diperlukan, manakala Puan Lim pula isteri seorang jutawan yang dapat memberi sokongan kewangan.
Tahun 1920an merupakan peringkat yang penting dalam sejarah seni lukis Pulau Pinang. Yong Mun Seng telah datang ke Pulau Pinang dari Singapura dan mendirikan studio seninya. Pelukis pertama yang mengadakan pameran seni lukis di Malaysia adalah Ooi Hwa yang telah mempamerkan karya-karyanya di Pulau Pinang pada tahun 1927. Ooi Hwa dan Lee Cheng Yong mungkin merupakan pelukis pertama yang pergi ke luar negeri untuk mempelajari seni di Akademi Seni Halus Shanghai. SITC (Sultan Idris Training College) ditubuhkan pada tahun 1922. Mata pelajaran Pendidikan Seni diajar di samping subjek-subjek lain. Komponen subjek Pendidikan Seni diajar bersama-sama dengan pertukangan tangan seperti membuat bakul dan lain-lain seni pertukangan rakyat ketika itu.
Sukatan Pelajaran yang digunakan adalah pelajaran menggunakan mengkuang untuk membuat bakul bagi tahun pertama. Mereka dikehendaki mencipta corak-corak baru dengan menggunakan rotan dan buluh. Kerja-kerja tahun pertama disambung pada tahun ke dua dan penggunaan rotan dan buluh adalah lebih meluas lagi pada tahun ke tiga. Buku teks yang digunakan ialah ’Kitab Rajah-rajah Anyaman’ oleh guru anyaman Mr. W. Olaguera.
Penuntut-penuntut diberi pilihan untuk pertukangan kayu bagi melatih membuat perabot-perabot seperti meja kecil, almari buku, tongkat dan sebagainya. Dalam tempoh tiga tahun terdapat enam kelas pertukangan kayu. Pilihan seterusnya adalah menjilid buku di mana hanya sebahagian kecil penuntut tahun tiga sahaja yang mengikutinya. Menganyam jaring bagi permainan bola sepak, hoki dan bola tampar. Pertukangan tanah liat di mana hanya sebilangan penuntut sahaja dipilih untuk belajar membuat tempat bunga, periuk dan lain-lain daripada tanah liat.
Pada tahun 1935, sekumpulan pelukis di Singapura merupakan penuntut Sekolah Seni Halus Shanghai, Sekolah Seni Shanghai dan Universiti. Mereka telah menubuhkan Salon Art Studies Society yang kemudiannya ditukar kepada Persatuan Pelukis-pelukis Cina.
Persatuan ini menumpukan perhatian kepada perlaksaan pameran karya-karya pelukis asing, terutamanya karya pelukis-pelukis HongKong dan Cina. Pelukis tempatan turut diberi peluang untuk meluaskan pengalaman. Pameran tahunan mereka telah menjadi tradisi berterusan tanpa sebarang sekatan melainkan pada tahun-tahun peperangan 1942 hingga 1945. Ramai ahlinya merupakan staf Akademi Seni Halus Nanyang.
Akademi Seni Halus Nanyang diasaskan pada tahun 1938 oleh pengetuanya, Lim Hak Tai. Lim Hak Tai, seorang pelukis ternama dan berwawasan memperkembangkan kesenian dengan menubuhkan institusi yang pertama dan paling lama di Singapura. Di antara pelukis-pelukis terkenal yang menjadi tenaga pengajar ialah Cheong Soo pieng, Georgette Chen Li Ying, Chen Wen His dan Chen Chong Swee. Para pelukis ini telah datang ke Singapura selepas Perang Dunia ke Dua. Mereka dilatih di akademi-akademi Seni di Shanghai, kanton dan Amoy. Mereka juga didedahkan kepada pengaruh modenis aliran-aliran di Paris.
Pelukis-pelukis Nanyang memainkan peranan yang besar dalam perkembangan tradisi seni moden di Malaysia dan Singapura melalui aktiviti-aktiviti mereka. Mereka terkenal kerana menggabungkan konsep Barat dan Timur dalam hasil karya mereka, yang kemudiannya dikenali sebagai Nanyang. Apabila Cheng Yong kembali pada tahun 1932, beliau mengadakan pameran solo di Philomatic Union, Acheen Street. Pameran ini telah memberi kesedaran kepada pelukis-pelukis tempatan yang telah melukis bersendirian dan tidak sedar akan kewujudan pelukis-pelukis lain.
Pada tahun 1936, pelukis-pelukis Cina telah berkumpul di bawah pengaruh Yong Mun Sen, dan menubuhkan Kelab Seni Lukis Cina Pulau Pinang. Di antara pengasas kelab ini termasuklah Lee Cheng Yong sebagai Presiden, Yong Mun Seng sebagai Timbalan Presiden, Quan Kuan Sin sebagai setiausaha, Tay Hooi keat sebagai bendahari dan Kuo Ju Ping, Tan Seng Aun, Tan Gek Khean serta Wan Fee sebagai ahli jawatan kuasa. Mereka telah mengadakan Pameran seni dan Fotografi yang pertama. Kebanyakan karya yang dipamerkan adalah mengikut aliran Realisme Barat dan Post Impressionism di samping beberapa lukisan berus Cina tradisional. Pelukis-pelukis di seluruh Malaysia dan singapura telah diundang untuk menjayakan pameran ini. Pada tahun 1937, kumpulan Penang Impressionist yang mengadakan pameran tahunan secara tetap, telah menjemput ahli-ahli Kelab Seni Lukis Cina pulau Pinang. Jemputan ini amat menggalakkan pelukis-pelukis tempatan memberi sumbangan yang positif. Pameran ini merupakan pameran terakhir Penang Impressionist sebelum dibubarkan sebelum bermulanya Perang dunia Kedua. Kebanyakan ahlinya yang aktif telah pulang ke Eropah atau pun telah dipindahkan.
Kelab Seni Lukis Cina Pulau Pinang telah mengadakan dua atau tiga lagi pameran di bawah pimpinan Lim Cheng Ean (ayah P.G. Lim dan Lim Kean Siew, pengumpul karya seni) dan seterusnya dipimpin oleh Ong Keng Seng. Ketika peperangan, aktiviti-aktiviti pertubuhan terpaksa diberhentikan untuk sementara waktu kerana kawalan keselamatan yang dikenakan di kawasan desa dan pantai. Akhirnya, pertubuhan ini dibubarkan sebelum kemaraan jepun pada tahun 1941. Pada tahun 1949, persatuan seni Singapura telah ditubuhkan oleh beberapa ekspatriat seperti Dr. Gibson-Hill yang mengetuai Raffles Museum and Library, Richard Walker yang merupakan pengetua Seni Sekolah-sekolah Singapura, Francis Thomas iaitu guru Sekolah St Andrews, Suri Mohgani iaitu pelukis tempatan dan Liu Kang yang juga Presiden persatuan tersebut. Walau pun Liu Kang bukan seorang guru seni beliau disanjung tinggi sebagai pelukis yang cekap dan penglibatan aktifnya dalam Persatuan Pelukis Cina dan Persatuan Seni Singapura.



The Realism movement was active from 1830 to 1870 and is also known as the Realist School. The movement discarded the previous traditional styles and formulas of Neoclassicism and Romanticism. The Realist artist portrays subjects in the most straightforward manner possible without idealizing them, and without following previous art theories. The earliest works from the Realist movement arose in the 18th century as a reaction against Neoclassicism and Romanticism. The works of Copley and Goya are an example of the early influences on Realism. The period was in full swing by the mid 19th century when artists became anxious with the influence of the Academies. The Ashcan School, the Contemporary Realist, and the American Scene Painters are all movements that are based on the Realist tradition. Famous artists of the Realist movement include Gustave Courbet, Honore Daumier, John Singer Sargeant, J A Macneil Whistler, Jean-Francois Millet, and Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot.



Creating batik fabrics is truly an art form and has been practiced thousands of years. The dyeing of fabric demands experience, vision, patience and a clear knowledge of color.In this world of mass production, and fabrics printed by machines, batik survives as a method of hand-printing, hand-dyeing and of individual artistic creation.

BATIK Pool Dyeing

Batik (pronounced 'Bah-Teak') is a technique used to dye fabrics. Batiking is a relatively straightforward process that often produces beautiful results.
Batik is a fabric dying method using wax to create patterns and designs.
This method makes use of a resist technique; applying areas of cloth with wax (a dye-resistant substance) to prevent them from absorbing colors when the cloth is dipped into dye.
Not only as a dye-resistant substance, the wax applied is also used to control colors from spreading out from a particular area to create motif when the dye is painted.
A method thought to be over a thousand years old, today, batik has taken on a much wider meaning. It can be referred to:
* cloth block printed with wax or
* cloth decorated with hand-drawn designs.
* cloth decorated with traditional batik designs without the use of the resist method
The use of batik has also extended from clothing to everything from home furnishings and table cloths to handicrafts.


The first and most important tool of the Batik artisan is the canting.


A fabric dyeing technique in which the pattern is first drawn with melted beeswax onto the cloth with a metal tool. The cloth is immersed in dye. The areas covered by the wax are not affected by the dye, creating a pattern that can be seen when the wax is removed by boiling the cloth or ironing the wax so it melts from the cloth. Wax and dye applications may be repeated for color variation.



Objektif penilaian kerja kursus Kajian Rekaan Seni Visual adalah untuk menilai kebolehan pelajar:
1. mengembangkan bakat dan potensi sedia ada secara berterusan
2. meneroka idea baru dengan kajian penyelidikan secara terperinci
3. memahami proses penghasilan sesuatu produk
4. mengenali dan memahami kaedah penghasilan yang berkaitan dengan bahan, media dan teknik
5. mengaplikasi pengetahuan, kemahiran, psikomotor dan afektif secara berterusan
6. mengetahui sifat dan fungsi unsur-unsur seni serta prinsip rekaan bagi membolehkan pelajar
berkomunikasi melalui hasilan seni visual
7. menghasilkan produk berkualiti sejajar keperluan dalam industri reka cipta untuk dijadikan asas pembentukan kerjaya
8. memahami ciri dan keistimewaan produk kraf dan reka cipta dalam konteks perkembangan budaya kebangsaan
9. mengamalkan nilai murni dan penghargaan


Pelaksanaan Kerja Kursus Kajian Rekaan Seni Visual bertujuan memenuhi matlamat Pendidikan Seni Visual yang menumpukan kepada nilai keperibadian, kritis dan kreatif, celik budaya, berpengetahuan secara imaginatif, berkemahiran secara kolektif serta dapat mengaplikasikannya dalam kehidupan seharian.

Pelaksanaan kerja kursus ini memberi pengalaman kepada calon untuk membuat kajian dan penerokaan kepada penemuan-penemuan baru dengan mengutarakan idea-idea kreatif dan relevan dengan keperluan persekitaran. Calon dibimbing oleh guru untuk mencari, menganalisa, mengolah serta mencerakinkan minda bagi menghasilkan sesuatu produk yang berkualiti.

Pengalaman melaksanakan kerja kursus ini dapat melahirkan generasi yang peka dan sensitif serta berfikiran kreatif terhadap persekitaran dan keperluan-keperluan semasa, celik seni, berminat dan berfikiran terbuka. Mengamalkan sikap prihatin dan menghargai setiap kejadian dengan nilai-nilai yang tinggi.


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